Pulmonary insufficiency

The inflammatory process in the lungs is associated with complex immunological reactions

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Consequences of acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome of acute pulmonary insufficiency that occurs in response to local or systemic tissue hypoxia, ischemia and reperfusion, with a multifactorial etiology. The cause of ARDS can be a variety of factors, from viruses and bacteria to injuries and intoxications.
The inflammatory process in the lungs is associated with complex immunological reactions: activation of neutrophils, endothelial cells, production of free oxygen radicals. The main role in ARDS pathogenesis is played by pulmonary edema due to damage to the alveolar-capillary membrane. Excessive immune activation in response to a damaging agent (with massive cytokine release and the development of a “cytokine storm”) is probably as dangerous as immune deficiency, only with a different pathogenetic mechanism and consequences.

After recovery from ARDS, there are unpleasant consequences in the form of pulmonary insufficiency of varying severity due to pulmonary fibrosis (consolidation of lung tissue that occurs at the site of previous inflammatory changes, scarring). This condition is described by patients as frequent shortness of breath, even with light exercise, fatigue, inability to breathe “to the full breast”. Decreased effective respiratory function of the lungs leads to hypoxia of body tissues, which in turn disrupts all body systems, especially cardiovascular and nervous.


Why mesenchymal stem cell treatment?

The infusion of cultivated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the early stages of ARDS is used to prevent the development of a “cytokine storm”. If possible, MSC infusion should be performed at the stage of laboratory and instrumentally confirmed signs of ARDS, regardless of the etiological factor.
In the treatment of the effects of ARDS, therapy using MSCs has:

  • immunomodulatory effect (promotes the normal functioning of the immune system);
    •   stimulates the recovery of damaged tissues (improves the nutrition of lung tissue due to the

secretion of a number of trophic factors);

  • reduces pulmonary fibrosis, increases the vital capacity of the lungs.

Cultivated stem cells can be administered several times a day in uniform doses, they are not rejected by the immune system and compatibility with the system of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is not required.

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Impact of therapy

The results of therapy always depend on the characteristics of the body and comorbidities.
Usually, under the influence of treatment in the patient’s body the following effects are detected:
        •  immunomodulation, increasing the body’s resistance to infections;

  • anti-inflammatory action and elimination the effects of systemic inflammatory reaction

(“cytokine storm”);

  • stimulation of damaged tissues repair;
  • reduction of pulmonary fibrosis.

Your treatment plan in QR Health Solutions:

Day 1 Examination

Instrumental and laboratory examination, with results obtained same day.

Treatment plan

The same day you and two doctors discuss the clinical decision. In
case of any conventional treatment is advised – decision is on you.
Family is involved in discussion any decision.

Day 2 Therapy

QR clinic provides intravenous infusion of UCD-MSC (stem cells), it`s out-patient procedure that takes about 2 hours.

Day 3 Therapy

Repetitive administration, monitoring the result. Visit of our doctor, making plan for discharge, recommendation are given.

Day 4 Recovery

Clinical examination, planning of further observation, discharge.


Sources:

World Health Orgnizaion. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected: interim guidance, 13 March 2020. World Health Organization, 2020. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet Wilson JG, Liu KD, Zhuo NJ, Caballero L, McMillan M, Fang XH, et al. (2015). Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3:24-32. Hashmi S, Ahmed M, Murad MH, Litzow MR, Adams RH, Ball LM, et al. (2016). Survival after mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Haematology, 3:E45-E52. Kamen DL, Nietert PJ, Wang H, Duke T, Cloud C, Robinson A, et al. (2018). CT-04 Safety and efficacy of allogeneic umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: results of an open-label phase I study. Lupus Science & Medicine, 5: A46-A47. Li W, Ren G, Huang Y, Su J, Han Y, Li J, et al. (2012). Mesenchymal stem cells: a double-edged sword in regulating immune responses. Cell Death Differ, 19:1505-1513. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia inWuhan, China. JAMA. Leng Zikuan, Zhu Rongjia, Hou Wei, et al. Transplantation of ACE2- Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves the Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia. Aging and disease, 2020, 11(2): 216-228.

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