A stroke happens when the blood supply to one or more parts of the brain is reduced or completely blocked. The blockage may be temporary or permanent and it can be caused in two different ways:
- In ischaemic strokea blood clot obstructs the supply of blood to the brain
- In hemorrhagic strokea blood vessel bursts and bleeds into the brain
All parts of the brain need to have a good blood supply to work properly. When the flow of blood is restricted or stopped, vital nutrients and oxygen cannot reach the cells in the brain and they are damaged or die. The effects on the body depend on which part of the brain is damaged and how long the blockage remains. A stroke can affect movement, speech, thought processes and memory. It can cause paralysis in one or more parts of the body, or loss of control of bodily functions. About 40% of people affected by stroke will have permanent symptoms that result in them needing special care. Many people’s symptoms improve significantly following a stroke, but only about 10% of patients recover fully.
The best treatment for someone suffering a stroke is to get treatment as quickly as possible to restore blood flow. Brain (neural) stem cells can make any cell in the brain and will naturally repair small amounts of brain damage. Researchers hope that neural stem cell treatments might be able to help stroke victims by partially repairing brain damage.
Researchers are working to develop medications that promote neural stem cells already in the brain to multiply, migrate towards damaged areas and start the repair process. There are limited numbers of neural stem cells in our brains. Although large numbers of neural stem cells can be made in laboratories with iPSCs, these cells could cause tumours and more brain damage if incorrectly made.
Allogeneic umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells not form tumors, can be administered multiple times over the course of days in uniform dosages.
They are immune system privileged, cell rejection is not an issue and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching is not necessary.
No need to collect stem cells from the patient’s hip bone or fat under anesthesia, which especially for small children and their parents, can be an unpleasant ordeal.
No need to administer chemotherapy drugs like granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF) to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.